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By Kelly James Clark

"Since the flip of the twenty-first century, naturalism has turn into the most famous philosophical orthodoxies within the Western academy. but naturalism is extra usually assumed than defended. The Blackwell significant other to Naturalism deals a scientific advent that defines, discusses and defends philosophical naturalism. Essays take on naturalism's function in present cultural conversations, from Libertarianism to Read more...

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The Blackwell spouse to Naturalism presents a scientific creation to philosophical naturalism and its relation to different colleges of thought. Read more...

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Some of these might be thought of as fixed by our natures as social animals; humans need peace, security, friendship, and so on. The specific form of these needs, the ways they are best met, will have a culturally variable component. Some aims or needs are quite culturally specific and defensible. The aims(s) of morality are thus included as part of what humans need and desire. Naturalistic Epistemology and the Problem of Normativity In “Epistemology Naturalized,” Quine (1969) suggested that epistemology be assimilated to psychology.

However, no one has suggested these things! No important moral philosopher, naturalist or non‐naturalist, has ever thought that merely gathering together all relevant descriptive truths would yield a full normative ethical theory. Morals are radically underdetermined by the merely descriptive, but so too, of course, are science and normative epistemology. All three are domains of inquiry in which ampliative generalizations and underdetermined norms abound. The smart naturalist makes no claims to establish demonstratively moral norms.

The smart naturalist makes no claims to establish demonstratively moral norms. Instead, he or she points to certain practices, values, virtues, and principles as reasonable based on inductive and abductive reasoning (more on this further on). Indeed, anyone who thinks that Hume thought that the fallacy of claiming to move demonstratively from is to ought revealed that normative ethics was a nonstarter hasn’t read Hume. After the famous passages in the Treatise about is–ought, Hume proceeds for several hundred pages to do normative moral philosophy.

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