By Daniel C. Snell
A spouse to the traditional close to East bargains scholars and common readers a finished review of close to japanese civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the nice.
- Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians
- Places specific emphasis on social and cultural background
- Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and glossy worlds
- Provides an invaluable bibliographical consultant to this box of study
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Additional info for A Companion to the Ancient Near East
The major governors of the western provinces tried to acquire a position of virtual independence. Half a century of ‘‘feudal’’ fragmentation halted the imperial expansion, and the smaller states west of the Euphrates were able to keep their independence and restore equilibrium in the area. The case of Babylonia was different. After the end of the Kassite dynasty, and after the brilliant reign of Nebuchadnezzar I (1125–1104), the kingdom suffered from Elamite and Assyrian forays, and from nomadic infiltration of the Arameans along the corridor between the Tigris and the Zagros and later also of the Chaldeans along 16 Mario Liverani the lower Euphrates.
Reduction of resource diversity could mean greater risk of catastrophe. A restricted-resource agriculture-based diet could mean nutritional deficiencies and dental problems (Smith, Bar-Yosef, and Sillen 1984). The tighter arrangement of sedentary villages and their piles of rubbish (and rats) meant higher rates of infectious disease, and closer contact between humans and animals might favor species-jumping diseases, as organisms associated with animals came into contact with new potential hosts.
Focus is on the material evidence of elites and 28 Augusta McMahon of state economic administration – public buildings and art, seals, bullae (clay tags), and tablets which recorded movement of goods, and mass-produced pottery. There is assumed to have been efficient gathering and redistribution of agricultural products, textiles, and other manufactured items, grounded in an urban core and a rural periphery. Scholars see the Mesopotamian state as urban, typified by Uruk in the Late Uruk period around 3100 B C E , at about 250 hectares or 620 acres and with population estimates of up to 40,000 inhabitants (Nissen 2002).