By Daniel C. Snell
A better half to the traditional close to East bargains scholars and normal readers a entire review of close to jap civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the good. Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians locations specific emphasis on social and cultural heritage Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and glossy worlds offers an invaluable bibliographical advisor to this box of analysis
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A spouse to the traditional close to East deals scholars and basic readers a entire evaluate of close to japanese civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the nice. Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians areas specific emphasis on social and cultural background Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and glossy worlds offers an invaluable bibliographical consultant to this box of research
Extra resources for A Companion to the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World)
Scholars have focused on positive aspects of the Mesopotamian river plains – agricultural surplus potential, predictability of rainfall and floods, efficient water transport – but also point out the necessity for local and long-distance trade to acquire and disperse key items and resources, trade which promoted development of a state structure. 2 Because of the sparse evidence, we are too willing to place Levantine Neolithic sedentary communities, north Mesopotamian Hassuna farming villages, and Ubaid chiefs’ houses in a trajectory leading to urban sites of south Mesopotamia, while these are mere footnotes to the earliest state complexity.
Empires, about 750–330 BCE The situation changed in the mid-eighth century. The state of fragmentation and equilibrium was broken by the sudden expansion of the only major power left, namely Assyria, along the lines already indicated by Shalmaneser III, but on a wider scale and with more stable results. Tiglath-pileser III (744–727) defeated Urartu and its NeoHittite allies and conquered most of Syria and northern Palestine. He then penetrated deeply into Media and then finally defeated the Chaldean tribes and proclaimed himself king of Babylon.
As usual, the periphery was more decisively affected, while the main core of urbanization, in lower Mesopotamia, could better resist the troubles. The last century of the third millennium, when the crisis was already well advanced in the peripheral areas, was dominated in the river valleys by the third dynasty of 10 Mario Liverani Ur (2112–2004), which represented the most efficient and stable state organization that Mesopotamia ever experienced, in earlier or later times. In a short period, under Ur-Nammu, Shulgi, Amar-Sin, and Shu-Sin, the Ur kings were able to revitalize Sumerian culture and religious ideology, and to extend the model of the temple-city to a wider region in which the former city-states were transformed into provinces.