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96b) Ø yāng badan-as nā. ’ “Inclusion” refers to the predicate nominal being included in a group here. “He” is identified as an element of a group of people called “teachers” (cf. Payne 114). Payne (114) furthermore notes that it is not unusual for languages not to make a distinction between these two. The copula has been glossed in such constructions as a covert morpheme in earlier examples as well because full sentences without a verb are not usually found in the language. 1 Due to there not being an overt copula morpheme, there is no tense, mood, or focus marking in these constructions.

Helge K. d. Web. 12 Aug. 2010. no/hnohf/> 2 Rosenfelder, Mark. ” The Metaverse. 2010. Mark Rosenfelder. 1996–2010. Web. 12 Aug. 2010. html> 3 Rosenfelder, Mark et al. Zompist Bboard. a. Virtual Verduria Message Board. 2005. d. Web. 12 Aug. 2010. com/zbb> Epilogue, or why I did this THIS IS STILL A DRAFT 10 the Conlang Mailing List4 in the meantime, where I met people who actually knew things about linguistics, or even studied it. This encouraged me to start reading linguistic papers to educate myself a little more in this area.

88c) Ang tav-ya-Ø AF gino nimpur-eri. 7 Causative The causative marks due to what or whom something happens, or who makes someone do something. It is marked on a noun phrase by -isa, or sā respectively: (89a) Ang rua AF sara-ayn-Ø seyaran-isa. ’ (89b) Sā no sip-vāng adanya-Ø. I yan. FOC Sā apa-yang petān-Ø yana. ’ Note that the causative is also used for constructions in which the agent prompts something to be done to him- or herself: (90) Sā vis-ay-Ø mitrang-as nā. 5 Articles, determiners, demonstratives Noun phrases do not commonly have articles as such in Ayeri, that is, a morpheme preceding or following a noun phrase to show its definiteness.

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