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By W. K. C. Guthrie

The 3rd quantity of Professor Guthrie's nice heritage of Greek proposal, entitled The Fifth-Century Enlightenment, offers in elements with the Sophists and Socrates, the foremost figures within the dramatic and primary shift of philosophical curiosity from the actual universe to guy. every one of those components is now on hand as a paperback with the textual content, bibliography and indexes amended the place helpful in order that every one half is self-contained. The Sophists assesses the contribution of people like Protagoras, Gorgias and Hippias to the intense highbrow and ethical fermant in fifth-century Athens. They puzzled the bases of morality, faith and arranged society itself and the character of information and language; they initiated a complete sequence of vital and carrying on with debates, and so they provoked Socrates and Plato to a big restatement and defence of conventional values.

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A n a x a g o r a s was also called sophistes b y D i o d o r u s ( 1 2 . 3 9 , D K , 59 A 1 7 ) . F o r A n a x a g o r a s ' s b o o k sec v o l . 11, 3 3 4 269. 30 The Meaning of'Sophistes' (demos) sophistes', is uttered in the same tone of incredulity b y Hippolytus in Euripides (Hipp. 921) of a man who could make fools wise. So the noun occurs with an objective genitive meaning a deviser or contriver ( Ί became a sophistes of many calamities', Eur. Heracl. 993). Hence the sense of expert, pundit, for instance in mathematics.

3 2 ' Demotes' and the Sophists 1 by Kratos as a duller sophistes than Zeus. ' Sophocles was an exact contemporary of Protagoras, and in him the word could have been coloured b y the appearance on the scene of Sophists as a professional class. Aristophanes too was well aware of their existence when he satirized sophists in the Clouds, but still used the word in a more general sense, in which it could include (for those who disapproved of him) Socrates, although he took no fees and is constantly represented b y Plato as the Sophists' inveterate opponent.

1 3 ) . This was how philosophy had been regarded hitherto, especially in the Pythagorean school, of which Plato certainly, and Socrates probably, was an admirer. The complex Socratic-Platonic concept of eros, a sublimated homosexual love, will also have been at work. (&) Inter-city status The Sophists, then, were disliked for different reasons both by philo­ sophers like Socrates and Plato and by leading citizens like Anytus. The odium which they incurred in the eyes of the establishment was not only due to the subjects they professed; their own status was against them.

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