By Fred Roozeboom (auth.), Fred Roozeboom (eds.)
Rapid thermal and built-in processing is an rising single-wafer expertise in ULSI semiconductor production, electric engineering, utilized physics and fabrics technology. right here, the physics and engineering of this expertise are mentioned on the graduate point. 3 interrelated components are coated. First, the thermophysics of photon-induced annealing of semiconductor and similar fabrics, together with primary pyrometry and emissivity matters, the modelling of reactor designs and strategies, and their relation to temperature uniformity. moment, technique integration, treating the advances in uncomplicated gear layout, scale-up, built-in cluster-tool apparatus, together with wafer cleansing and built-in processing. 3rd, the deposition and processing of skinny epitaxial, dielectric and steel movies, protecting selective deposition and epitaxy, built-in processing of layer stacks, and new components of power software, corresponding to the processing of III-V semiconductor constructions and skinny- movie head processing for high-density magnetic info storage.
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Extra info for Advances in Rapid Thermal and Integrated Processing
E. W. L. Field, Int. Electron Dev. Meeting Techn. Dig. (1980) 752. R Singh, J. Appl. Phys. 63, R59 (1988). M. H. Schwuttke, Solid St. Electron. 11, 1175 (1968). B. Lojek, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 224,33 (1991); see also Chapter 17 of this book. M. Osburn in Rapid Thermal Processing, Science and Technology, (RB. Fair, editor), Academic Press, New York, 1993, p. 227. K. Maex, Chapter 12 of this book. For a recent review see: G. Lucovsky, Y. v. R. Lu, V. J. Wortman, l. L. Whitten, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.
Ex is a useful quantity to know because it is closely related to the penetration depth of radiation in a given medium, since the intensity of the radiation decreases according to exp( -exz), where z is the depth beneath the surface of the medium. ex is usually quoted in units of cm- I . The normal incidence reflectivity, R, of a material is also often measured in experiments. It is given by R = (n _1)2 + k 2 (n+ 1)2 +k 2 ' (13) It is important to realize that the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index are not independent of each other.
Proc. 387, 137 (1995). G. Bobel, H. Moller, W. Preiss, Proc. , Oct. 19-20, 1993, Boston, p. 130. G. Bobel, H. Moller, B. Hertel, G. Ritter and P. Chow, Solid St. Techno/. 37(8), 55 (1994). H. G. Bobel, B. Hertel, T. Lindenberg and G. Ritter, J. Cryst. Growth 157, 327 (1995). J. H. T. C. Saraswat, Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Symp. Proc. 1393, 366 (1990). Chapter 2 THE THERMAL RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTORS P. J. TIMANS AG Associates 4425 Fortran Drive, San Jose, CA95134-2300, USA. 1. Introduction The development of rapid thermal processing (RTP) techniques for the fabrication of advanced electronic devices requires a detailed understanding of the thermal radiative properties of semiconductor wafers.