Download American Language Supplement 1 by H. L. Mencken PDF

By H. L. Mencken

Possibly the 1st actually very important booklet in regards to the divergence of yank English from its British roots, this survey of the language because it was once spoken-and because it used to be changing-at the start of the 20 th century comes through one in all its such a lot inveterate watchers, journalist, critic, and editor HENRY LOUIS MENCKEN (1880-1956).In this copy of the 1921 "revised and enlarged" moment version, Mencken turns his willing ear on:

• the overall personality of yankee English
• loan-words and non-English influences
• expletives and forbidden words
• American slang
• the way forward for the language
• and masses, a lot more.

Anyone fascinated about phrases will locate this a completely spell binding examine the main changeable language at the face of the planet.

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It again reaches its minimum when the distribution is the same in all units, and the larger it becomes, owing to the specialization of each unit in one or more types, the greater the larger entity’s territorial diversity. When applied to our island example, this index also yields a more satisfactory verdict than simple β-indices that only take the number of types into account. 16 Suppose then that we have some sensible notion of both local and territorial diversity. As suggested long ago by Claude Lévi-Strauss (1961) in connection with cultural diversity, there is a tension between the two.

Presumably, if people’s identities were re-shapeable at will, their development of a broader identity strong enough to obliterate their identities as speakers of the weaker language (and heirs to the traditions associated with it) would eliminate any injustice-as-unequal-dignity that might otherwise have been present: injustice as unequal dignity is not between languages, but between people who identify with those languages. Identities, however, are not so malleable. For the time being, therefore, and for the foreseeable future, justice as equal dignity will need to ascribe a major role to the linguistic territoriality principle and hence significant salience to the many quibbles to which its implementation is bound to give rise.

Both α-diversity and β-diversity express richness – or “variety” or “inventory diversity” – at the local and at the global level, respectively. e. the extent to which habitats differ from one another within a given landscape. e. the ratio of the total number of species in the landscape to the average number of species in its habitats. 14 Under either definition, it reaches its minimum (1 and 0, respectively) when all species present in the landscape are present in each habitat, or in as many habitats as their (possibly small) sizes allow, and its maximum is reached when each species is gathered in a single habitat, or in as few habitats as its (possibly large) size allows.

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