Download An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation by K. N. Liou PDF

By K. N. Liou

Solid e-book for either undergrads and grads. additionally valuable as a reference e-book for researchers.

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Additional resources for An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation

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7) where υk is the vibrational quantum number (an integer) and subscript k denotes the normal modes. For triatomic molecules such as H2 O and O3 , there are three normal modes, referred to as fundamentals. For linear molecules such as CO2 and NO2 , there are four fundamentals, but two orthogonal bending modes are degenerate and so only three fundamentals exist (see Fig. 3). The term degenerate is used to denote states with the same energy but with different sets of quantum numbers. 10 (a) Rotational transition following the selection rule J = +1 and equally spaced spectral lines in wavenumber.

30c) where θ and φ are the zenith and azimuthal angles defined previously, and |s| = s = (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )1/2 . In general, analytic solutions for Eq. 29a) do not exist and it must be solved numerically. In cases where the medium is homogeneous with respect to its single-scattering properties including the extinction coefficient, Eq. 29a) reduces to a first-order partial differential equation from which simplified solutions can be derived. Interested readers should refer to Chapter 6 for further details.

The energy emitted by nuclear fusion in the form of photons can pass through the inner part of the sun without being absorbed by the electrons. However, closer to the sun’s surface, the temperature decreases and the heavier atoms such as iron begin to recapture their outer electrons. These outer electrons are bound to the nucleus by relatively small forces and can be easily separated from the nucleus by the absorption of photons. It follows that the flow of photons coming from the interior is blocked by the appearance of the absorbing atoms.

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