By Wang Joseph
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Extra info for Analytical Electochemistry. Second Edition
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) represents another widely used technique for obtaining ex-situ information on the surface morphology and chemical composition (see, for example, Figure 4-17). Other powerful ex-situ techniques are based on the detection of charged particles derived from or interacting with the surface. Among these are low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which are carried out in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV).
Such maximum value of g, obtained when q 0, corresponds to the potential of zero charge (Epzc ). The surface tension is a maximum because on the uncharged surface there is no repulsion between like charges. The charge on the electrode changes its sign after the FIGURE 1-14 Electrocapillary curve (surface tension g vs. potential). 24 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS FIGURE 1-15 Electrocapillary curves for different electrolytes showing the relative strength of speci®c adsorption. ) potential passes through the Epzc .
The capacitance of the double layer consists of combination of the capacitance of the compact layer in series with that of the diffuse layer. For two capacitors in series, the total capacitance is given by 1 1 1 C CH CG FIGURE 1-12 Variation of the potential across the electrical double layer. 1-46 1-3 21 THE ELECTRICAL DOUBLE LAYER where CH and CG represent that capacitance of the compact and diffuse layers, respectively. The smaller of these capacitances determines the observed behavior.