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By Frank G Gress; et al

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Ultrasound catheter probes come in frequencies of 12, 20, and 30 MHz. The image resolution increases with increasing frequency; however, penetration (depth of imaging) decreases as frequency increases. 1). This is easily visualized when water is placed in the lumen. 2). The fourth layer is often thicker in the distal stomach compared to the proximal stomach. The fifth layer generally corresponds to surrounding structures and perigastric fat as the serosa is too thin to be resolved with endoscopic ultrasound.

Lower frequencies may be required to identify the size of a mass and if there is involvement with any adjacent structures (T-staging), and to assess nodal involvement (N-staging). 1 Layers of the gastric wall. 5 Bile Duct: Radial and Linear Kapil Gupta Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Normal bile duct anatomy Endoscopic ultrasound provides excellent imaging of the biliary tree and gallbladder. Using radial and linear echoendoscope, visualization of the bile duct is performed from two main stations, from the duodenal bulb and from the second portion of the duodenum.

Selection of the correct transducer and using good technique are important in obtaining high-quality images. When imaging the wall of the GI tract, the method of acoustic coupling is critical. Without good acoustic coupling to the mucosal surface, high-quality images cannot be obtained. The highest frequency available should be used to image the wall of the GI tract since deep penetration is not necessary unless imaging a large tumor arising from the wall. Using a higher frequency transducer will result in better resolution and allow for better identification of the layers involved.

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