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Extra resources for B.F. Skinner and behaviorism in American culture
Culture refers to shared beliefs and actions, and for the behavioral scientist, this means belief both in instruments that deliver certain kinds of information about the world and in certain kinds of experimental designs used to study learning. How was the work of a behaviorist done? In the 1930s, as Stephen R. 16 The cumulative recorder enabled him to go home on weekends instead of remaining in the laboratory to endlessly record data and refill the food bin for the behaving animal. " The originality of a kymograph that collected data continuously, recording rat lever presses (later pigeon key pecks) on a graph on a revolving drum, was that it conveyed some semblance of the temporal aspects of ongoing behavior.
In the realm of social activism, a journal once called Behavior and Social Action was renamed Behavior and Social Issues, while in philosophy the journal Behaviorism (ed. Willard Day, then Robert Epstein) received a new name, Behavior Page 22 and Philosophy, under new editorship (George Graham, then Max Hocutt). Not all journals with "behavior" in the title are Skinnerian, however. Outside of the special-interest journals just cited lie other behavioral journals in clinical practice (Behavior Therapy, ed.
26. Cf. James H. Capshew, "Engineering Behavior: Project Pigeon, World War II, and Page 25 the Conditioning of B. F. Skinner," this volume; and Daniel W. Bjork, "B. F. Skinner and the American Tradition: The Scientist as Social Inventor," this volume. : Prentice-Hall, 1986), pp. 1-14. 19. Nikolas Rose, "Engineering the Human Soul: Analyzing Psychological Expertise" (paper presented at the annual meeting of Cheiron-Europe, September 1990); expanded in Nikolas Rose, Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self (London: Routledge, 1990).