By Y.C. Fung
The conception of blood stream is the oldest and so much complex department of biomechanics, with roots extending again to Huangti and Aristotle, and with contributions from Galileo, Santori, Descartes, Borelli, Harvey, Euler, Hales, Poiseuille, Helmholtz, and so on. It represents an immense a part of humanity's thought of itself. This ebook offers chosen themes of this nice physique of principles from a old standpoint, binding vital experiments including mathematical threads. The goals and scope of this booklet stay just like within the first variation: to offer a therapy of circulatory biomechanics from the stand issues of engineering, body structure, and clinical technology, and to improve the topic via a chain of difficulties and examples. The identify is modified from Biodynamics: stream to Biomechanics: movement to unify the publication with its sister volumes, Biomechanics: Mechanical homes of dwelling Tissues, and Biomechanics: movement, circulation, tension, and progress. the foremost alterations made within the new version are the next: while the 1st version went to press in 1984, the query of residual tension within the center used to be raised for the 1st time, and the lung used to be the single organ analyzed at the foundation of stable morphologic information and constitutive equations. The targeted research of blood movement within the lung have been performed, however the physiological validation experiments had no longer but been completed.
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Extra info for Biomechanics: Circulation
6 Why is a red blood cell so deformable whereas a white blood cell is less so? 7 What is the evidence that the hemoglobin in the red blood cell is in a liquid state? When a hemoglobin solution is examined under x-ray, a definite diffraction pattern can be found. Why is the existence of such a crystalline pattern not in conflict with the idea that the solution is in a liquid state? 8 What is the source of bending rigidity of a red cell membrane? 18 1. Physical Principles of Circulation How could evidence be found that the red cell membrane has bending rigidity and in what way is it important?
They exhibit rhythmicity very early in fetal life. 3:1. The electric system of the heart and the action potentials at various locations in the heart. From Frank Netter (1969). © Copyright 1969, CIBA Pharmaceutical Company, Division of CIBA-GEIGY Corporation. Reprinted with permission from THE CIBA COLLECTION OF MEDICAL ILLUSTRATIONS illustrated by Frank H. D. All rights reserved. 3 Electric System 31 the first region of the heart to display electric activity during each cardiac cycle. From the S-A node, the cardiac electric signal spreads radially throughout the right atrium along ordinary myocardial fibers at a conduction velocity of approximately 1 m/s.
Physical Principles of Circulation q q ocity" would have to be 2 • p, 2 are "velocity-weighted" averages. If the pressure p is uniform over a cross se~tion,~ then p = p. If the velocity u is uniform over the cross section, then q 2 = u2• If the velocity profile is parabolic as in Poiseuille flow, then u2 = 2u 2, where u is the average value of u. Equation (18) is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to viscous and nonstationary flows. It makes it possible for us to speak of "pressure drop" in terms of quantities that can be calculated from velocity measurements.