By Gertz I. Likhtenshtein
This monograph describes the theoretical bases and experimental must haves for tactics akin to spin fluorescence, triplet, Mössbauer, photochromic and electron-density labeling, together with the strategies used to procure in particular changed proteins, enzymes, biomembranes, nucleic acids, and different organic molecules. the basics of the actual conception in the back of each one method is defined and info are given of ways to interpret the experimental info bought. particular sections take care of serious reports of contemporary information at the constitution, molecular dynamics and conformational transitions of organic molecules. each one part concludes with a dialogue of the consequences bought from those strategies in reference to a number of difficulties of enzyme catalysis, electron move, molecular biophysics and molecular biology. The makes use of that labeling strategies will be placed to for the research of complete cells and tissues also are mentioned.
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Additional info for Biophysical Labeling Methods in Molecular Biology
0 BSA. 6-G amplitude (Park & Trommer 1989). in the signal position (AHZ) at different ^-factors will be proportional to the vr value. Thus, radiospectrometers in the 2-mm band have much higher resolution with respect to the g-factor. 6). 2) and affords the possibility of direct determination of the A and g parameters from the spectra (Grinberg et al. 1983; Krinichnyi 1990). Under such conditions, superconducting magnets with very strong magnetic fields are employed, cooled by liquid helium. The spectra thus obtained are essentially simplified, since the value of the nuclear magnetic quantum number for 15 N (/) is \ (two lines of a hyperfine structure), and that of the magnetic moment of 2 H is much lower than that of XH.
About the Axx and Dxx axes) (Marsh 1989). 12) (Krinichny et al. 1987a,b; Park & Trommer 1989). 12). 11. Dependence of V'2 ratio parameters on i r for 14 N spin labels. Open circles are experimentally measured ratios from maleimide spinlabeled hemoglobin in glycerol buffer solution; x denotes the ratio measured from computer-generated spectra using axial A- and ^-tensors (Thomas et al 1976). 12. 2 mT (Krinichny et a/. 1987a). 13. 005, vm = 20 kHz) (Livshitz & Kuznetsov 1980). The method of spin labeling 29 saturation (Livshitz & Kuznetsov 1980).
Schematic representation of the dependence of dipole-dipole and exchange interactions on the distance between the paramagnetic centers. AHdd is the dipole-dipole contribution, J is the exchange integral, and \x is the magnetic dipole momentum. Dipole-dipole interaction is characterized by relatively weak attenuation as the distance between paramagnetic centers increases. 1 mT at r « 2 nm. 2) where fix and fi2 are magnetic moments, and rl2 is the distance between the spins. According to quantum mechanics, the exchange interaction between pairs of spins leads to energy splitting, with the formation of two states: (1) a singlet state with antiparallel disposition of spins and (2) a triplet state with parallel disposition.