By H. R. Lerner (auth.), Dov Pasternak, Anthony San Pietro (eds.)
Historically, scientists and laymen have looked salinity as a hazar dous, hazardous phenomenon. This adverse view was once a critical explanation for the inability of agricultural improvement of such a lot arid and semi arid zones of the area the place the main resources of water for organic creation are saline. The past due Hugo Boyko used to be most likely the 1st scientist lately to problem this in general held, pessimistic view of salinity. His learn in Israel indicated that many vegetation should be irrigated with saline water, even at seawater power, in the event that they are in sandy soil - a method that may open a lot barren land to agriculture. This new, even radical, method of salinity was once basically enunciated within the e-book he edited and such a lot correctly entitled 'Salinity and Aridity: New techniques to previous difficulties' (1966). A decade later, 3 participants of the U.S. nationwide technological know-how beginning (NSF), Lewis Mayfield, James Aller and Oskar Zaborsky, formulated the 'Biosaline Concept'; particularly, that terrible soils, excessive sunlight insolation and saline water, which succeed in arid lands, may be seen as helpful assets instead of as dangers, and that those assets can be utilized for non-traditional construction of foodstuff, fuels and chemical substances. the 1st foreign Workshop on Biosaline learn was once con vened at Kiawah Island, South Carolina, in 1977 by means of A. San Pietro.
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Additional info for Biosalinity in Action: Bioproduction with Saline Water
DUIII. New Phytol. 94,125-131. Hanson A D and Hitz W D 1982 Metabolic responses of IIIcsophytcs to plant water deficits. Annu. Rev. Plant Physio!. 33, 163-203. 38 31 GORHAM, WYN JONES AND McDONNELL Harvey D M R, Hall J L, Flowers T J and Kent B 1981 Quantitative ion localization within Suaeda maritima leaf mesophyll cells. Planta 151, 555-560. 32 Hill A E and Hill B S 1976 Elimination processes by glands: mineral ions. In Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, Vol. 2B. Eds. U Luttge and M G Pitman.
The differences in water use efficiency between L. sabulosus and E. juncea were small compared Table 11. 3 Leymus sabulosus Elytrigia ;uncea 35 SOME MECHANISMS OF SALT TOLERANCE IN CROP PLANTS Table 12. Water use efficiency in Leymus sabulosus and Elytrigia juncea mgfr. wt. (g-I H 2 O) mg dry wt. 73 with the differences in their absolute growth rates. The relative growth rates of both stressed and unstressed Elytrigia juncea were, however, slightly higher than those of L. sabulosus. In T. aestivum water use efficiency, although initially higher (> 2 mg dry weight gain per gram of water transpired) than for the perennial species, decreased dramatically as a result of prolonged exposure to 100 mol m -3 NaCI and eventually became negative.
In this chapter we will consider principally the mechanisms of tolerance that exist in crop plants. We will concentrate especially on the tribe Triticeae within the Gramineae (Poaceae), which includes some of the more tolerant of the conventional crop plants and 15 16 GORHAM, WYN JONES AND McDONNELL the major grain crops wheat, barley, rye and triticale. To assess the significance of various tolerance mechanisms we wiII inevitably be forced into comparisons with more tolerant 'halophytic' species.