By R. Edward Hendrick PhD, FACR (auth.)
Breast MRI has emerged as a invaluable diagnostic adjunct to mammography and breast ultrasound within the detection of basic and recurrent breast cancers and as a massive screening device in girls at excessive probability for breast melanoma. nonetheless, many radiologists who depend upon MRI should not have wisdom of the basics necessary to reaching and protecting excessive photograph caliber. With a spotlight at the simple imaging ideas of breast MRI instead of on mathematical equations, this e-book takes a realistic method of breast imaging that is helping radiologists enhance their breast MRI protocols. The textual content walks the reader during the fundamentals of MRI, making it specially available to newcomers. From a close define of apparatus must haves for acquiring prime quality breast MRI to directions on how you can optimize snapshot caliber, improved discussions on the best way to receive optimized dynamic details, and examples of fine and undesirable imaging strategies, the ebook covers the themes appropriate to appearing top of the range breast MRI. by way of providing the major elements of breast MRI in an easy demeanour and with transparent pictures, this functional e-book merits all practitioners looking to elevate their operating wisdom and competence in breast MRI, and can be of worth to citizens getting ready for board checks in diagnostic radiology.
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Extra info for Breast MRI: Fundamentals and Technical Aspects
9 MHz, a radio frequency just below the FM radio band. This “frequency-encoding” makes the MR signal more easily measurable. In breast imaging, the RF receiver coil is a specialized breast coil. In the early days of breast imaging, most RF receiver coils were unilateral, but today most are bilateral. Most modern breast coils have far more elaborate designs than single loops of wire. , to resonate) at the RF frequency of hydrogen at the particular field strength of the scanner. 0 T scanner. As we will discuss and illustrate in Chapter 7, breast coils are designed to receive signal from the breasts, axilla, and chest wall, but not from the entire upper torso.
7D) tend to have longer T1 values because the exchange of energy between hydrogen nuclei and macromolecules is limited, but shorter T2 values than in A-C because of the large magnetic field inhomogeneities maintained by the lattice structure. 7 (A) Distilled water consisting of randomly organized water molecules. A moving picture would show individual water molecules moving so rapidly that each hydrogen dipole would see a uniform magnetic field environment, causing T1 and T2 to be very long. (B) Water with macromolecules typical of a normal cell.
New York: Springer, 2005. 6. Warren R, Coulthard A, eds. Breast MRI in practice. London: Martin Dunitz, 2002. 7. Fischer U. Practical MR Mammography. Stuttgart: Thieme Publishing Co, 2004. 8. Heywang-Kobrunner SH, Dershaw DD, Schreer I. Diagnostic Breast Imaging. , 2001. 9. Morris EA. Breast cancer imaging with MRI. Radiol Clin North Am 2002; 40: 443–466. 10. Orel SG, Schnall MD. MR imaging of the breast for the detection, diagnosis, and staging of breast cancer. Radiology 2001; 220: 13–30 11. Schnall MD.