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13 Source: Byron Stafford, NREL Source: Byron Stafford, NREL This variation provides designers with the possibility of tailoring array performance to meet specific needs. An array with a tilt angle of 0º will produce the most energy on an annual basis. COM solar power > e-book > building-mounted photovoltaics Building-mounted PV Systems usually equivalent to the latitude, will produce energy the most efficiently and will produce electricity at the lowest cost per unit of rated capacity. The most gain in efficiency results from increasing the tilt angle from 0º to 10º, a gain of about 10%.
The joints in a PowerMembrane system are sealed after they are installed, which prevents penetration by moisture. Like ground-mounted collectors, rooftop arrays can also be mounted at angles that optimize the collection of solar radiation. The height of the rows is often limited to reduce wind loads. This also serves to limit the view of the array from street level, if that is a design requirement. 4 shows one example of a commercially available mounting system, the SunPower T-10 Solar Roof Tile with a factory-installed module preset at a tilt of 10º.
They include not only rooftop systems, but facades and shading devices. Minimizing the Effects of Wind Loading Wind loading is one of the more serious issues for a PV designer. COM solar power > e-book > building-mounted photovoltaics Building-mounted PV Systems Large ground-mounted collectors are vulnerable to dynamic loading caused by rapid changes in wind speed and direction, which can have a significant effect on array performance and can threaten collector survival. Rapid gusts of wind peaking at 54 m/s (121 mph) or greater are not unusual.