By Balkiz Öztürk
This ebook proposes that the 2 “independent” stipulations on argumenthood, particularly, case and referentiality, are strongly correlated and feature to be linked to one another in syntax as syntactic positive aspects. It exhibits that languages show edition within the approach this organization is applied of their syntax, which provides an evidence for the variations saw of their word constitution when it comes to (non-)configurationality. hence, this e-book not just provides an leading edge overarching thought for case and referentiality, but additionally goals to convey a brand new examine the problems of (non-)configurationality. It in particular argues for parameterization of useful different types linked to case and referentiality, which has yes implications not just for the purchase but additionally for the diachronic improvement of sensible different types. supplying wealthy comparative information from typologically diversified languages comparable to Turkish, chinese language, Hungarian, English and eastern, this publication is of specific curiosity to typologists in addition.
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Additional info for Case, Referentiality and Phrase Structure
This implies that under causativization, theme incorporation cases are treated as transitive constructions. That is, incorporation does not lead to detransitivization. More specifically, as in (60b), the incorporated construction still behaves like a three-place predicate with the agent in dative case. Incorporation does not turn the three-place predicate into a two-place predicate, allowing Ali to be marked with accusative case. 15 (60) a. Ali bal k tuttu. ” 42 CASE, REFERENTIALITY AND PHRASE STRUCTURE b.
A. ” b. * Üç tane ö renci de geldi. three cl. 9 Numerals without the classifier can freely occur with this marker. However, this particle is not allowed in the case of NPs with classifiers, as they do not denote specific individuals, but only quantity/number. This also supports the view that NPs with classifiers do not have referential power, as seen in (34) above. Hence, tane as a classifier blocks reference to individuals forming a set, but makes it possible to refer to the number of members forming a set collectively.
Hence, with these properties Turkish exhibits an interesting challenge for the standard accounts of referentiality. Given that there is no classifier REFERENTIALITY IN TURKISH 25 system and there are no overt or covert determiners, the question is what provides the referentiality feature to NPs in Turkish. Since referentiality is a cross-linguistic requirement for NPs to establish their argumenthood, it has to be available for nouns in Turkish as well. Note that Turkish cannot be considered to be a language of type [+argument, -predicate], where NPs are inherently of argument type.