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Coatings must adhere to the surface they are applied to. Coatings are typically a mixture of a liquid (vehicle or binder/adhesive) and one or more colorants (pigments). Coatings often also contain a number of so-called additives that can furnish added protection against ionizing radiation, increase the rate of drying and/or curing (crosslinking), and prevent microorganism growth. Coatings are specially formulated for specific purposes and locations and can be divided into five groups: • Oil paints consist of a suspension of pigment (colorant) in a drying oil such as linseed oil.

The ␣-helix is the basic structural unit of hair and wool, which are bundles of polypeptides called ␣-keratins. The helical structure imparts some carboxylic acid: one of the characteristic groups of atoms in organic compounds that undergoes characteristic reactions, generally irrespective of where it occurs in the molecule; the –CO2H functional group polypeptide: compound containing two or more amide units—C(O)NH—produced by the condensation of two or more amino acids helix: form of a spiral or coil such as a corkscrew hydrogen bond: interaction between H atoms on one molecule and lone pair electrons on another molecule that constitutes hydrogen bonding 11 Polymers, Natural Chitin, the earth’s second most abundant polysaccharide, is the fundamental substance in the exoskeletons of crustaceans.

Carraher Jr. ” University of Southern Mississippi Department of Polymer Science. edu/marcrogϾ. ” Chemical Heritage Foundation. htmlϾ. Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid—the natural polymer that stores genetic information The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of a section of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Until the 1980s obtaining numerous copies of a section of DNA took one to two weeks and required isolation of the DNA, cloning the DNA into a viral or plasmid vector, growing the cloned DNA using living host cells, usually bacteria, and finally isolating the DNA again.

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