By Morris Freedman, Larry Leach, Edith Kaplan, Gordon Winocur, Kenneth Shulman, Dean C. Delis
Written through a multidisciplinary crew of specialists in neurobehavior, this concise, well-illustrated e-book presents normative facts on clock drawing from a long time 20 to ninety years. a pragmatic advisor to the quantitative review of clock drawing, it additionally takes a process-oriented method of qualitative impairment. The authors speak about clock drawing as a neuropsychological attempt tool and the reason for choosing particular time settings, in addition to the foundation for utilizing varied clock stipulations. The ebook comprises various examples of clocks drawn by way of sufferers with cognitive impairment because of dementia, metabolic encephalopathy, stressful mind harm, disconnection syndrome and focal mind lesions. perception into alterations in clock drawing skill which may signify the earliest markers of cognitive decline in dementia also are offered. This quantity might be of curiosity to clinicians and researchers in neuropsychology, neurology, psychiatry, geriatric medication, language remedy, and occupational remedy.
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Extra info for Clock Drawing: A Neuropsychological Analysis
As noted by Rouleau and colleagues (1992), however, the scoring system adopted by Sunderland and colleagues assumes that the ability to draw hands on a clock is affected first and that difficulty representing numbers and the clock face occur later. This assumption is not always correct. 46 Clock Drawing Tuokko et al. (1992) compared clock drawing in patients with Alzheimer's disease to age- and gender-matched normal subjects. They assessed performance under each of three conditions comprised of clock drawing, clock setting, and clock reading.
This was an 86-year-old subject who placed the numbers in a counterclockwise sequence. Subjects tended not to rotate the paper as they wrote the numbers. Rotating the paper occurred only in the 70-79 and 80+ age groups and was seen in about 10 percent of the subjects in these age categories. Rotation of the paper should, therefore, not be considered pathological. Rotating the paper, however, typically resulted in numbers being poorly oriented. Examples of rotation by a 75-year-old subject are illustrated in Figure 2-8.
Table 2-4 presents the cumulative frequencies and percentile rankings for the total clock scores for each age group. The effect of age on the total clock scores is evident in the range of scores for age groups; the greatest ranges occur at the 70—79 and 80+ age groups. Reliability among three raters was found to be very high using our "critical item" scoring system. 865. 845 (all/? 841. 740 (all/? 695. Test-retest reliability as measured by Spearman rank-order correlations were very low and insignificant except for one condition, the examiner clock at "11:10" (r = Normative Study 31 Figure 2-15 Examples of superfluous marks or hands.