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By Rodolfo Jacobson

This article is a set of contributions via overseas students at the theoretical and pragmatic facets of language combination research.

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Content morphemes, of course, assign or receive thematic roles; the lemmas that underlie them (level of the mental lexicon or the lemma level) are directly elected by the semantic/pragmatic feature bundle that is selected at the conceptual (pre-linguistic) level. Early or The matrix language frame model 43 indirectly-elected system morphemes are also activated at the lemma level because the lemmas underlying content morphemes point to them (cf. Bock—Levelt 1994)12. Unlike content morphemes, early system morphemes do not receive or assign thematic roles.

Also, the embedded language system morpheme in the island, the -s plural on houses, is also an early system morpheme, also depending on its head for its form. 13/PL-small house-Pi. 'small houses' The matrix language frame model 51 (Shona/English Myers-Scotton 1993a [1997]: 152) Similarly in dak la chemise 'this the shirt', the Arabic dak is an early system morpheme, as is the French article la in the French noun phrase (Bentahila and Davies, 1998: 36). Based on such data, I hypothesize that all system morphemes in constructions involving internal embedded language islands will be early system morphemes, not the late outsider system morphemes to which the system morpheme principle refers.

Rather, I suspect what really bothers critics is that they want the matrix language and embedded language to have an identity independent of the two principles (cf. Boumans 1998: 39). However, as I have argued above, these constructs are abstractions. They only become real as the terms of hypotheses (principles). If the hypotheses are supported, there are two results. First, in an empirical sense, the terms Matrix Language and Embedded Language are useful labels for the languages against which the hypotheses have been tested.

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