By Dr. Leonard B. Spector (auth.)
Some years in the past certainly one of my scholars and that i pronounced that the acetate kinase response is mediated by way of a phosphorylated type of the enzyme [R. S. Anthony and L. B. Spector, lBe 245, 6739 (1970)]. The reversible response among ATP and acetate to provide acetyl phosphate and ADP had hitherto been inspiration to continue by means of direct move of a phosphoryl crew from A TP to acetate in a single-displacement response. yet now it turned transparent that acetate kinase used to be one in all that vast variety of enzymes whose mech anism is that of the double displacement. For a few cause, i started to ask yourself in regards to the probability that each one enzymes, like acetate kinase, are double displacement enzymes, and do their paintings by way of covalent catalysis. For something, i couldn't give some thought to a unmarried example of an enzyme for which unmarried displacement catalysis have been proved, and inquiries in this element between a professional neighbors elicited a similar unfavourable reaction. furthermore, it used to be lengthy recognized that the 2 other forms of chemical catalysis~homo geneous and heterogeneous~occur in the course of the middleman formation of a covalent bond among catalyst and reactant. i started to believe convinced that chemical catalysis via enzymes needs to take place an analogous way.
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Extra info for Covalent Catalysis by Enzymes
J. Bright, JBC 248,4400-4416 (1973). (2) P. Hemmerich, G. Nagelschneider, and C. Veeger, FEBS lett. 8, 69-83 (1970); P. Hemmerich, Chimia 26, 149-150 (1972). (3) C. T. Walsh, A. Schonbrunn, and R. H. Abeles, JBC 246,6855-6866 (1971). (4) D. J. T. Porter, J. G. Voet, and H. J. Bright, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 49, 257-263 (1972). (5) C. T. Walsh, E. Krodel, V. Massey, and R. H. Abeles, JBC 248, 1946-1955 (1973). ,IUllon \ 1 ):JC Apoenzyme + ........ H + 5 H3 HO J Fig. 1. Mechanism of oxidation of nitroethane anion by D-amino-acid oxidase and inhibition of the enzyme by cyanide ion (1).
68) T. Manabe, N. Manabe, K. Hiromi, and H. Hatano, FEBS lett. 23, 268-270 (1972); T. Manabe, H. Hatano, and K. Hiromi, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 73,1169-1174 (1973). (69) R. E. Strothkamp and C. R. Dawson, Biochem. Biophys. Res. CommW1. 85, 655-661 (1978). (70) B. G. Malmstrom, BBA 549,281-303 (1979). (71) B. Chance, C. Saronio, and J. S. , JBC 250,9226-9237 (1975). (72) G. M. Clore and E. M. Chance, Biochem. J. 177,613-621 (1979). (73) G. M. Clore, L. E. Andreasson, B. Karlsson, R. Aasa, and B. G.
Whether enzymic redox reactions be intramolecular (sugar isomerases) or intermolecular (flavoenzymes), the transfer of "hydride ion" seems always to demand a separation of the migrating proton from its electrons. On grounds of chemical analogy, the same principle ought to govern the action of NAD enzymes. 1] of eukaryotic cytosols, which catalyzes the disproportionation of two superoxide radical anions into a molecule each of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (49). O2 - + O 2 - + 2 H+ -----t O 2 + H 2 0 2 Each subunit of the enzyme contains one copper and one zinc ion, but only the copper participates in the chemistry of the reaction, oscillating between (46) I.