By Balkwill F. (ed.)
Cytokine Molecular Biology concentrates on molecular biology concepts for the examine of cytokines, cytokine receptors, and cytokine pushed tactics. up-to-date issues from the former variation are: the cloning and expressing cytokine genes;; the detection of cytokine mRNA; receptor binding reports; the PC-specific phosphslipase C and sphingomylinases. moreover, new subject matters lined are the purification, sequencing, and synthesis of cytokines; learning cytokine gene polymorphisms; using proteomics in cytokine learn; and the Jak/STAT and MAPK signalling pathways. Written via specialists within the box, Cytokine Molecular Biology and Cytokine mobile Biology shape a finished and crucial consultant to cytokine learn.
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Extra resources for Cytokine Molecular Biology
Gamma-glutamyltransferase ␥ -Glutamyltransferase catalyzes transfer of the ␥ glutamyl group from ␥ -glutamyl peptides such as glutathione (GSH) to other peptides and to l-amino acids. GGT is present in many tissues in cell membranes, including the ductular side in the proximal tubule of the kidneys, intestine, and epididymis. A lower activity of GGT is found in the pancreas, liver, spleen, heart, brain, and seminal vesicles. GGT plays an important role in the hydrolysis of GSH and may also play a role in amino acid transport across membranes as part of the ␥ -glutamyl cycle.
In addition, the alkaline phosphatase and hepatic GGT activities are similarly increased in patients with alcoholic hepatitis, yet serum GGT levels were 1,300% of normal while alkaline phosphatase serum levels were only slightly above normal . Aside from its value in conferring liver specificity to an elevated alkaline phosphatase level and its possible use in identifying that a patient abuses alcohol, the measurement of serum GGT offers little advantage over aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase testing in the evaluation of patients with suspected liver disease.
This is in striking contrast to results with alkaline phosphatase . The greatest value of the 5 -nucleotidase assay is its specificity for hepatobiliary disease. An increased serum 5 -nucleotidase level in a nonpregnant individual suggests that a concomitantly increased serum alkaline phosphatase level is of hepatic origin. A normal nucleotidase level in the presence of an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level does not rule out the liver as the source of the elevated phosphatase level. The level of one enzyme may occasionally be normal and the other elevated in liver disease.