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By Nicholas Ostler

Nicholas Ostler's Empires of the Word is the 1st historical past of the world's nice tongues, gloriously celebrating the beauty of phrases that binds groups jointly and makes attainable either the residing of a standard historical past and the telling of it. From the uncanny resilience of chinese language via twenty centuries of invasions to the attractive self-regard of Greek and to the struggles that gave start to the languages of recent Europe, those epic achievements and extra are brilliantly explored, as are the interesting disasters of as soon as "universal" languages. A perfect, authoritative, and noteworthy paintings, it demonstrates how the language heritage of the realm eloquently finds the true personality of our planet's various peoples and prepares us for a linguistic destiny choked with surprises.

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Empires of the Word: A Language History of the World

Nicholas Ostler's Empires of the be aware is the 1st background of the world's nice tongues, gloriously celebrating the beauty of phrases that binds groups jointly and makes attainable either the dwelling of a typical historical past and the telling of it. From the uncanny resilience of chinese language via twenty centuries of invasions to the attractive self-regard of Greek and to the struggles that gave beginning to the languages of contemporary Europe, those epic achievements and extra are brilliantly explored, as are the interesting disasters of as soon as "universal" languages. A fantastic, authoritative, and memorable paintings, it demonstrates how the language historical past of the realm eloquently finds the true personality of our planet's varied peoples and prepares us for a linguistic destiny jam-packed with surprises.

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Lines 2 and 4) asks about the aspectual state of the action – is it completed or not? The ongoing status of events is also regularly marked by this stage through the use of the ‘-ing’ form of the verb. There are no examples in this extract, but in the same recording we find ‘Mark doing it’; ‘Helen still in bed’ (line 36) expresses very much the same notion of a continuing state. g. ‘I am going’). , ‘in the basket’). In line 61 we also see the first use of a ‘pro-word’, ‘do’ to stand for ‘ask’ in this context.

When Jonathan is 36 months old, his mother insists, as she finishes a story, ‘I told you I’m only reading one book now’. On another occasion, she refuses to read him a story because he’s just wet his pants instead of asking to go to the toilet. Because of his work as a motor mechanic maintaining machines in a factory, Jonathan’s father was rarely at home during the observations. When he was at home, though, he joined in the story-reading as well, as we found in our observation at 27 months. However, not all Jonathan’s interests were so literary.

Mother: Anthony: Mother: Anthony: Mother: [trying to dress Anthony in order to go out] Tony! It’s very not funny . it’s hard . it’s difficult . and you’re not making it any easier . stand up! don’t be so stupid! That pom-pom [swinging it so that he hits his mother’s face] [crossly] Don’t ever do that again, Tony! [struggling to get his gloves on] Tony! concentrate on what I’m trying to do, will you, there’s a good boy Mm There’s nothing worse than trying to put gloves on somebody who’s not concentrating Not all Anthony’s conversational experience was like this, of course.

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